How to Install Jupyter Notebook as Service for Tensor Flow and Deep Learning on Ubuntu 16.04

When developing a deep-learning system, especially during the modeling stage, a lot of trials and errors can be involved in evolving the codebase. The easy remedy to reduce errors will be by using a robust IDE that provides productivity-boosting features such as code completion, method definition, codestyle suggestion, advanced debugging, user-friendly UI, and so forth.

Another element for better development experience is interactivity. Instead of writing the whole source code and evaluate everything, it is arguably more productive to write the code in small steps, with one line as the smallest unit, and evaluate the code up to the last line written. This kind of mechanism is possible for scripting language where the codes are interpreted. Node JS for example has a feature named Read-Eval-Print Loop (REPL) that enables someone to write Javascript code with Node JS and has it evaluated on the go. Deep learning algorithms and systems are often developed in Python, another interpreted language. Similar initiative also exists for Python in the forms of interactive shell and “notebook”. A notebook is an interactive environment, normally with web GUI support, where someone can combine code execution, text, rich media, charting and other types of data visualization. A popular notebook for Python is Jupyter Notebook, which was formerly known as IPython Notebook.

In this article, we will go into more details about Jupyter Notebook installation and configuration on Ubuntu 16.04. However, it’s important to note that the configuration depends on some pre-requisites. This article is the continuation of the previous article about TensorFlow installation. Please make sure you have read the article to understand the pre-requisites, otherwise some steps explained in this article may not work.

The pre-installation environment is as follows:

ItemValue
OSUbuntu 16.04
Python version2.7.12
Python install methodvirtualenv
User IDMYUSER (change this into your user account)
Virtualenv path~/virtualenv/tensorflow or /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow

Installation Steps (Basic)

Step 1: Install ipython packages
$ sudo apt-get -y install ipython ipython-notebook

Step 2: Activate the virtualenv
$ source ~/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/activate

After executing the command above, the prompt will be changed to:
(tensorflow) $

Step 3: (virtualenv) Install jupyter module
(tensorflow) $ pip install jupyter

Start 4: (virtualenv) Start jupyter server
(tensorflow) $ jupyter notebook --port 8888 --ip 0.0.0.0 --no-browser

Sample output:

[I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] Serving notebooks from local directory: /home/MYUSER
[I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] 0 active kernels
[I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] The Jupyter Notebook is running at:
[I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] http://0.0.0.0:8888/?token=47a46e2bb27da415a57d7d0743cfb28fedd7c71c93cf6905
[I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] Use Control-C to stop this server and shut down all kernels (twice to skip confirmation).
[C 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] 
    
    Copy/paste this URL into your browser when you connect for the first time,
    to login with a token:
        http://0.0.0.0:8888/?token=47a46e2bb27da415a57d7d0743cfb28fedd7c71c93cf6905

Step 5: Access Jupyter notebook GUI

To access the GUI, we open the browser and type the GUI address as hinted by the log output in Step 4. Note that the IP address 0.0.0.0 refers to all interfaces. This means that we can access the jupyter notebook locally (in case of desktop or server with GUI) using “localhost” or remotely by changing 0.0.0.0 with the server’s public IPv4 address.

Installing Jupyter Notebook as Service (Advanced Installation)

Manually starting Jupyter notebook may suffice for single user with less frequent use. If we use notebook extensively, it is better to install Jupyter as service that is started at boot time. Additionally, running Jupyter as service will enable remote access by more people, a common setting in a collaborative environment.

There can be two options for installing Jupyter as service: system-wide service or user service. We will install Jupyter as a user service that is always started at boot time. The configuration steps are explained as follows.

Step 6: Stop Jupyter server

Simply press Ctrl+C twice to stop the server

Step 7: Create notebooks directory. We will create the directory in user’s home directory
$ mkdir notebooks

Step 8: Activate the virtual environment
$ source ~/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/activate

Step 9: (virtualenv) Obtain the path to Jupyter notebook executable
(tensorflow) $ which jupyter

Sample output: /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/jupyter

Step 10: (virtualenv) Generate automatic password for Jupyter
$ jupyter notebook password

Sample output:

Enter password: 
Verify password: 
[NotebookPasswordApp] Wrote hashed password to /home/MYUSER/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.json

Step 11: (virtualenv) Generate default Jupyter configuration
(tensorflow) $ jupyter notebook --generate-config

Step 12: (virtualenv) Deactivate the virtualenv
(tensorflow) $ deactivate

Step 13: Modify the default Jupyter configuration file
$ vi /home/MYUSER/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.py

jupyter_notebook_config.py

...
c.NotebookApp.ip = '*'
c.NotebookApp.port = 8888
c.NotebookApp.open_browser = False
## Whether to allow the user to run the notebook as root.
c.NotebookApp.allow_root = True
...

More detailed explanation about the configuration parameters can be seen in the official documentation.

Step 14: Create a directory and file for Jupyter log file

$ mkdir -p ~/logs/jupyter
$ touch ~/logs/jupyter/jupyter.log

Step 15: Create a shell script to start Jupyter service. We name this script as start-jupyter-service.sh.
$ vi ~/start-jupyter-service.sh

#!/bin/bash

. /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/activate
nohup /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/jupyter-notebook --config=/home/MYUSER/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.py > /home/MYUSER/logs/jupyter/jupyter.log 2>&1 < /dev/null 

Step 16: Add execution right to the shell script
(tensorflow) $ chmod u+x ~/start-jupyter-service.sh

Step 17: Create a file named jupyter.service in ~/.config/systemd/user/jupyter.service. We may need to create the directory first if it does not exist.

$ mkdir -p ~/.config/systemd/user
$ vi ~/.config/systemd/user/jupyter.service

jupyter.service

[Unit]
Description=Jupyter Notebook
AssertPathExists=/home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow

[Service]
Type=simple
PIDFile=/run/jupyter.pid
ExecStart=/bin/bash /home/MYUSER/start-jupyter-service.sh
WorkingDirectory=/home/MYUSER/notebooks/
Restart=always
RestartSec=10

[Install]
WantedBy=default.target

Step 18: Enable the service to start after system boot
$ sudo loginctl enable-linger zc-user

Step 19: Start the service
$ systemctl --user start jupyter.service

To stop the service:
$ systemctl --user stop jupyter.service

To check the service status:
$ systemctl --user status jupyter.service

Step 20: Verify that Jupyter GUI is accessible

Open the browser, and access the server GUI address (e.g. localhost:8888 or server.name:8888 or 100.101.102.103:8888) and make sure the login UI is displayed similar with the picture below.

Step 21: Start using Jupyter notebook

After logging in with the password, you can now start using Jupyter notebook. The menu to create a new notebook is available at the upper right of the GUI.

Concluding Remark

Installing Jupyter notebook server as service can be better setup in a collaborative environment. If you have issue during the installation or have some tips and tricks that are not covered in the article, simply write in the comment section.

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