When developing a deep-learning system, especially during the modeling stage, a lot of trials and errors can be involved in evolving the codebase. The easy remedy to reduce errors will be by using a robust IDE that provides productivity-boosting features such as code completion, method definition, codestyle suggestion, advanced debugging, user-friendly UI, and so forth.
In this article, we will go into more details about Jupyter Notebook installation and configuration on Ubuntu 16.04. However, it’s important to note that the configuration depends on some pre-requisites. This article is the continuation of the previous article about TensorFlow installation. Please make sure you have read the article to understand the pre-requisites, otherwise some steps explained in this article may not work.
The pre-installation environment is as follows:
|Python install method||virtualenv|
|User ID||MYUSER (change this into your user account)|
|Virtualenv path||~/virtualenv/tensorflow or /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow|
Installation Steps (Basic)
Step 1: Install ipython packages
$ sudo apt-get -y install ipython ipython-notebook
Step 2: Activate the virtualenv
$ source ~/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/activate
After executing the command above, the prompt will be changed to:
Step 3: (virtualenv) Install jupyter module
(tensorflow) $ pip install jupyter
Start 4: (virtualenv) Start jupyter server
(tensorflow) $ jupyter notebook --port 8888 --ip 0.0.0.0 --no-browser
[I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] Serving notebooks from local directory: /home/MYUSER [I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] 0 active kernels [I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] The Jupyter Notebook is running at: [I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] http://0.0.0.0:8888/?token=47a46e2bb27da415a57d7d0743cfb28fedd7c71c93cf6905 [I 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] Use Control-C to stop this server and shut down all kernels (twice to skip confirmation). [C 08:23:41.786 NotebookApp] Copy/paste this URL into your browser when you connect for the first time, to login with a token: http://0.0.0.0:8888/?token=47a46e2bb27da415a57d7d0743cfb28fedd7c71c93cf6905
Step 5: Access Jupyter notebook GUI
To access the GUI, we open the browser and type the GUI address as hinted by the log output in Step 4. Note that the IP address 0.0.0.0 refers to all interfaces. This means that we can access the jupyter notebook locally (in case of desktop or server with GUI) using “localhost” or remotely by changing 0.0.0.0 with the server’s public IPv4 address.
Installing Jupyter Notebook as Service (Advanced Installation)
Manually starting Jupyter notebook may suffice for single user with less frequent use. If we use notebook extensively, it is better to install Jupyter as service that is started at boot time. Additionally, running Jupyter as service will enable remote access by more people, a common setting in a collaborative environment.
There can be two options for installing Jupyter as service: system-wide service or user service. We will install Jupyter as a user service that is always started at boot time. The configuration steps are explained as follows.
Step 6: Stop Jupyter server
Simply press Ctrl+C twice to stop the server
Step 7: Create notebooks directory. We will create the directory in user’s home directory
$ mkdir notebooks
Step 8: Activate the virtual environment
$ source ~/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/activate
Step 9: (virtualenv) Obtain the path to Jupyter notebook executable
(tensorflow) $ which jupyter
Sample output: /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/jupyter
Step 10: (virtualenv) Generate automatic password for Jupyter
$ jupyter notebook password
Enter password: Verify password: [NotebookPasswordApp] Wrote hashed password to /home/MYUSER/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.json
Step 11: (virtualenv) Generate default Jupyter configuration
(tensorflow) $ jupyter notebook --generate-config
Step 12: (virtualenv) Deactivate the virtualenv
(tensorflow) $ deactivate
Step 13: Modify the default Jupyter configuration file
$ vi /home/MYUSER/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.py
... c.NotebookApp.ip = '*' c.NotebookApp.port = 8888 c.NotebookApp.open_browser = False ## Whether to allow the user to run the notebook as root. c.NotebookApp.allow_root = True ...
More detailed explanation about the configuration parameters can be seen in the official documentation.
Step 14: Create a directory and file for Jupyter log file
$ mkdir -p ~/logs/jupyter
$ touch ~/logs/jupyter/jupyter.log
Step 15: Create a shell script to start Jupyter service. We name this script as start-jupyter-service.sh.
$ vi ~/start-jupyter-service.sh
#!/bin/bash . /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/activate nohup /home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow/bin/jupyter-notebook --config=/home/MYUSER/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.py > /home/MYUSER/logs/jupyter/jupyter.log 2>&1 < /dev/null
Step 16: Add execution right to the shell script
(tensorflow) $ chmod u+x ~/start-jupyter-service.sh
Step 17: Create a file named jupyter.service in ~/.config/systemd/user/jupyter.service. We may need to create the directory first if it does not exist.
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/systemd/user
$ vi ~/.config/systemd/user/jupyter.service
[Unit] Description=Jupyter Notebook AssertPathExists=/home/MYUSER/virtualenv/tensorflow [Service] Type=simple PIDFile=/run/jupyter.pid ExecStart=/bin/bash /home/MYUSER/start-jupyter-service.sh WorkingDirectory=/home/MYUSER/notebooks/ Restart=always RestartSec=10 [Install] WantedBy=default.target
Step 18: Enable the service to start after system boot
– Enable MYUSER to keep running the service even though the user is not currently logged in
$ sudo loginctl enable-linger MYUSER
– Automatically start the Jupyter service registered by MYUSER on every system restart
$ systemctl --user enable jupyter.service
Step 19: Start the service
$ systemctl --user start jupyter.service
To stop the service:
$ systemctl --user stop jupyter.service
To check the service status:
$ systemctl --user status jupyter.service
Step 20: Verify that Jupyter GUI is accessible
Open the browser, and access the server GUI address (e.g. localhost:8888 or server.name:8888 or 100.101.102.103:8888) and make sure the login UI is displayed similar with the picture below.
Step 21: Start using Jupyter notebook
After logging in with the password, you can now start using Jupyter notebook. The menu to create a new notebook is available at the upper right of the GUI.
Installing Jupyter notebook server as service can be better setup in a collaborative environment. If you have issue during the installation or have some tips and tricks that are not covered in the article, simply write in the comment section.